The orange, north of the Speyer line also called orange (from Dutch appelsien, literally “apple from China/Sina”) is an evergreen tree, in particular also its fruit is so called. The valid botanical name of the orange is Citrus × sinensis L., so it belongs to the genus Citrus plants (Citrus) in the family of the lozenge family (Rutaceae). It originates from China or Southeast Asia, where it originated from a cross between mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus maxima)
The bitter orange, which originates from the same parent species, is distinguished from the sweet orange because of its completely different use. While the bitter orange came to Italy in the 11th century at the latest, the sweet variety was only introduced to Europe in the 15th century, where it was initially cultivated almost exclusively in Portugal. Today the sweet orange is the most frequently cultivated citrus fruit in the world.
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